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Countries
Introduction :

The following items listed on a country by country basis have 3 main components:-

A brief summary and a picture of an endemic or near endemic butterfly species;

A detailed downloadable pdf file on Butterflies of that country usually with an extensive bibliography, details of where to go and what to see, email address of the EIG country representative, and often a national contact who would provide information and welcome your records;

For many European countries there is also a downloadable spreadsheet which contains a country list, A5 recording sheet, details of who to send records to and a facility for both entering records into a table but also outputting these to a one row per record database.  You will need Excel and you will need to enable macros to get the database button to work.

We welcome contributions from volunteers, for countries for where there is no information.
Austria
White Speck Ringlet Erebia claudina
Found at high altitude only in the Austrian Alps.


Recording

The EIG Austria Species List & Recording Form - Download Here (Zipped Excel file - 180kb)
Bulgaria (click here for more info - PDF, 2.7mb)

Nicholl's Ringlet Erebia rhodopensis
A mountain species occurring locally on alpine and sub-alpine grassland.

Summary

Bulgaria is a relatively small and mountainous country (111,000 sq km) in the far south-east of Europe (bigger than Scotland, smaller than England). It is rich in wildlife and wild places with nearly 34% of the country designated under the Natura 2000 network. This includes 50 Prime Butterfly Areas. It is one of the butterfly hotspots of Europe with 216 species reliably recorded there (210 breeding species), including many species that are widespread in Europe (including virtually all those that occur in the UK). It has the highest mountains in the Balkans which host a range of high altitude species, including 14 species of Erebia. It has two near endemics as well as another 5 species that are endemic to the Balkans while another 17 species only occur in the Balkans in Europe.

Recording

The EIG Bulgaria Species List & Recording Form - Download Here (Zipped Excel file - 183kb)

Cyprus (click here for more info - PDF, 300kb)
Paphos Blue Glaucopsyche paphos
Endemic  & widespread within Cyprus.

Summary


Although a relatively large island (9253 km2) the location of Cyprus on the crossroads of Europe and Asia, 70 km from the nearest mainland country (Southern Turkey) and with a typically arid eastern Mediterranean summer climate, combine to restrict the number of confirmed butterfly species to 52 although not all are resident.

Recording

This is run by Eddie John FRES from the UK, with Distribution Maps maintained at a resolution of 5 x 5 km and 10 x 10 km UTM squares. Eddie will be pleased to provide a map showing the grid squares to enable accurate placement of sightings. Assistance with identification is available if required.

Contact: eddiejohn100@gmail.com
Website: http://www.cyprusbutterflies.co.uk/page3.html

France

Lefèbvres Ringlet Erebia lefebvrei
Found on Pyrenean scree slopes. Foodplants are various fescues and meadow grasses.
Summary

France is home to 260 butterfly species with 26 of them considered threatened in Europe. France
has 26 Prime Butterfly Areas principally located in a belt stretching from Bordeaux across to the Alps
with only two PBA’s in the north and one in Corsica.

The country is vast and varied with a rich butterfly fauna. We have asked a number of local experts to contribute information about their particular area and have already received the following contributions. Please contact us if you wish to assist by adding information on other areas of France.

The following links will open PDF's reviewing each respective region (file size shown on brackets)

Introduction (830kb) The Brenne (669kb) Dordogne (1360kb)
Hautes Pyrennees (1099kb) Lot (847kb) Loire Valley - South/Central (958kb)
Poitou-charentes (766kb) Var (547kb) Vaucluse (482kb)

Recording

The EIG France Species List & Recording Form - Download Here (Zipped Excel file - 190kb)
Red List of Butterflies ~ France (536kb)

Germany (click here for more info - PDF, 1.6mb)

Scarce Heath Coenonympha hero
Some of the few remaining western European populations of this glacial relict species are in Germany.

Summary


Almost all of the butterfly fauna of north-west Europe (outside the Alps) are present in Germany, although many of the more specialist species are rare and/or endangered there. More then 180 butterfly species are native to Germany, of which three (Violet Copper (Lycaena helle), Large Blue (Phengaris arion) and False Ringlet Coenonympha oedippus)) are classified as endangered in Europe.

Recording

The EIG Germany Species List & Recording Form - Download Here (Zipped Excel file - 180kb)
Germany Species List/Protection Status - Download Here (Zipped Excel file - 13kb)
Greece (click here for more info - PDF, 180kb)

Cretan Festoon Zerynthia cretica
Habitat of dry, open scrub, the larval food plant is Birthwort Aristolochia cretica, which only grows on Crete.

Summary


Greece has about 232 species of butterfly and one of the richest butterfly faunas of any country in Europe with its own endemic species and many species with their European distribution largely restricted to Greece. The Greek mainland, particularly the mountains, are of greatest interest for butterflies though there are specialised endemic species on many of the islands including Crete e.g. Cretan Festoon (Zerynthia cretica). The season is very long with butterflies on the wing from February to November.

Recording

The EIG Greece Species List & Recording Form - Download Here (Zipped Excel file - 184kb)
Hungary (click here for more info - PDF, 129kb)

Pallas's Fritillary Argynnis laodice
Found in damp forests where the larva feed on viola species.

Summary


Hungary originally had about 170 butterfly species but the present number ofspecies is just over 160 due to extinctions as a result of changes in landscape use and drainage of wetlands in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The butterfly fauna of Hungary is typical Central European with a number of Mediterranean elements (such as Nettle-tree Butterfly, Cardinal, Iolas Blue or even occasional specimens of Long-tailed Blue). Penetration of Atlanto-Mediterranean species (e.g. Red Underwing Skipper) and Siberian elements
(Yellow-legged Tortoiseshell, Pallas’s Fritillary) occur mainly in the north-western and northeastern
regions). The butterfly and moth season begins at the end of March and lasts until November.

Recording

The EIG Hungary Species List & Recording Form - Download Here (Zipped Excel file - 177kb)
Italy (click here for more info - PDF, 1.5mb)

Piedmont Anomalous Blue
Polyommatus humedasae

Endemic to Italy, inhabits Aosta valley in the Italian Alps.

Summary


Italy (including the islands of Sardinia and Sicily) has a rich and varied landscape and vegetation. It is home to over 260 resident species with around 20 Italian endemics and Italy has more Prime Butterfly Areas (32) than any other European country.

Recording

The EIG Italy Species List & Recording Form - Download Here (Zipped Excel file - 186kb)
Macedonia

Macedonian Grayling Pseudochazara cingoski
Found amongst limestone rocks.


Recording

The EIG Macedonia Species List & Recording Form - Download Here (Zipped Excel file - 182kb)
Romania

Danube Clouded Yellow Colias myrmidone
Endangered, feeds on broom sp.


Recording

The EIG Romania Species List & Recording Form - Download Here (Zipped Excel file - 183kb)
Slovenia (click here for more info - PDF, 368kb)

Stygian Ringlet Erebia styx
Found on dry limestone slopes of the Julian Alps where it feeds on grasses.

Summary


Slovenia is a small country - about the same size as Wales - with a remarkable variety of habitats. The highest point is in the Julian Alps - Mount Triglav, at 2863 metres. River valleys run mainly SE towards the Danube, reaching the Pannonian plain just before exiting Slovenia. This part still has areas of wet grassland and floodplain woodland. The dinaric karst region has a variety of meadows, hillsides and forests, and is rich in orchids and butterflies. The Mediterranean coastline stretches for only 46km between Italy and Croatia, but has its own attractions for the naturalist. With 179 confirmed species, Slovenia is perfect destination for anyone interested in butterflies.
Spain (click here for more info - PDF, 1.3mb)

Spanish Greenish Blacktip
Euchloe bazae

A Spanish endemic of 2 sub-species.

Summary


Peninsular Spain and the Balearic Islands are home to between 232 and 239 species of butterfly (depending on the source consulted).

The Canary Islands are home to around 600 species of Lepidoptera, more than a quarter of which are found nowhere else in the world.

Recording

The EIG Spain Species List & Recording Form - Download Here (Zipped Excel file - 184kb)
Sweden

Freija’s Fritillary Boloria freija
A species confined to Scandinavia but not uncommon.




Recording


The EIG Sweden Species List & Recording Form - Download Here (Zipped Excel file - 90kb)
Switzerland (click here for more info - PDF, 364kb)

Eriphyle Ringlet Erebia eriphyle
Local species of grassland in the Alps.

Summary


Switzerland is one of the biodiversity hot spots of Europe being blessed with roughly 208 species. A large percentage of the surface area of Switzerland is dominated by high mountains and its fauna is greatly enriched by its Alpine representatives. It also benefits from some Mediterranean influences around in the S and SW. Switzerland has no endemic species although is home to several extremely local and restricted species shared with neighbouring Italy and/or Austria. Some of Europe's central European species are represented at low to mid altitudes, including some of the wetland specialists.





Turkey (click here for more info - PDF, 109kb)

Ionian Emperor Thaleropis ionia
A species of river valleys & woodland from Southern and Eastern Turkey.

Summary


For watching butterflies, Turkey is hard to beat. Its famously rich flora provides a huge range of foodplants and nectar sources for butterflies, and its mix of temperate and dry, cold and hot climates are perfect for a wealth of species – from Europe, Asia, the Middle East and Africa. On top of all this, there are also many species that are unique to Turkey. The famous ‘biogeographic crossroads’ give Turkey a staggering diversity of butterflies – around 380 species, more than 40 of them endemic.
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